The name Lucifer originally denotes the planet Venus, emphasizing its brilliance. The Vulgate employs the word also for "the light of the morning" (Job 11:17), "the signs of the zodiac"
(Job 38:32), and "the aurora" (Psalm 109:3).
Metaphorically, the word Lucifer is applied to the King of Babylon (Isaiah 14:12) as preeminent among the princes of his time;
To the high priest Simon son of Onias (Ecclesiasticus 50:6), for his surpassing virtue, to the glory of heaven (Apocalypse 2:28)
Finally, to Jesus Christ himself (II Petr. 1:19; Apocalypse 22:16; the "Exultet" of Holy Saturday) the true light of our spiritual life. The Syriac version and the version of Aquila derive the Hebrew noun helel from the verb yalal, "to lament"; St. Jerome agrees with them (In Isaiah 1:14), and makes Lucifer the name of the principal fallen angel who must lament the loss of his original glory bright as the morning star.
In Christian tradition this meaning of Lucifer has prevailed; the Fathers maintain that Lucifer is not the proper name of the devil, but denotes only the state from which he has fallen
Horus has typically been identified with the sun. Other scholars have advanced arguments that the god is to be identified with the planet Venus; with the star Sirius; and with the amorphous sky.
The cult of Horus is prominent already in pre-dynastic times (Writing itself is first attested in Egypt during the pre-dynastic Period, ca. 3200 B.C.E.
Rulers at Nekhen, for example, worshiped the falcon-god prior to the unification of Egypt. In the Early Dynastic Period (ca. 3000-2600 B.C.E.), Horus is explicitly identified as a star.
This much is evident from the fact that royal domains were named after the astral god. The domain established by Anedjib was called Ã“r-sbÃ¥-t, "Horus, star of the corporation (of gods)."
Hetepsekhemwy established a domain called Ã“r-?Å“-sbÃ¥, "Horus risen as a star."
Khasekhemwy founded a new domain called Ã“r-sbÃ¥-bÃ¥w, "Horus, the star of souls."
Most informative, perhaps, is the domain established at the beginning of the Third Dynasty by Djoser, named Ã“r-sbÃ¥-?nti-pt, "Horus, star at the front of the sky"
Additional information regarding the star-god Horus is to be found in the Pyramid Texts dating from roughly a half millennium later (2300 B.C.E.). That Horus was not the sun, as often maintained, is suggested by various hymns wherein the god is clearly distinguished from the ancient sun god Ra.
In the following passage, for example, Horus (as the deceased king) is implored to ascend to heaven and join Re: "RÃªÅ“ summons you into the zenith of the sky as the Jackal, the Governor of the Two Enneads, and as Horus Ã”nty-mnit.f; may he set you as the Morning Star in the midst of the Field of Rushes.
Raymond Faulkner, considered it a foregone conclusion that Venus must be the stellar body referenced by the phrase "Morning Star." Thus, in a comprehensive survey of Egyptian star-lore Faulkner wrote as follows: "As regards the identification of the Morning Star and the Lone Star with actual celestial bodies, there can be little doubt that, as elsewhere, the Morning Star is Phosphorus, Venus as seen at dawn."
The most detailed study of Egyptian star religion to date is that by Rolf Krauss. He, too, would identify Horus with the planet Venus, citing as evidence various passages in the Pyramid Texts that describe the star as shining in the "eastern" portion of the morning sky while moving with
respect to other stars, a characteristic of planets rather than stars.
Krauss summarized his findings as follows:
"As early as the beginning of dynastic times Horus seems to be identified with the planet Venus. The names of the so-called royal vineyards describe Horus as a star. The name of Djoser's vineyard reveals that Horus is a particular star â€˜at the front of the sky'. The identification of Horus with Venus as known from the Pyramid Texts suggests itselfâ€¦Royal ideology and ideas
about the Hereafter seem to have had cosmological and stellar foundations which may well go back to pre-dynastic times.
An analysis of Horus's early epithets offers additional insight into his astral origins. A recurring epithet of the god is Duat, traditionally translated as "Netherworld."
The word Duat, in turn, is derived from the root dwÃ¥, "morning," whence comes Horus's epithet Neter Dua "Morning Star (or God)."
The etymology of Duat suggests that Horus's identity as the Morning Star is indissolubly connected to his role as Lord of the "Netherworld." In a passage from the Pyramid Texts the association between the "Morning Star" and the Duat is made explicit: "O Morning Star, Horus of the Netherworld, divine Falcon, wÃ¥dÃ¥d-bird whom the sky bore"